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J.U.S. FAQ's

A. The Prostate is an organ forming part of the male reproductive system. It is located immediately below the bladder and just in front of the bowel. Its main function is to produce fluid which protects and enriches sperm. In younger men the prostate is about the size of a walnut. It is doughnut shaped as it surrounds the beginning of the urethra, the tube that conveys urine from the bladder to the penis. The nerves that control erections surround the prostate.
A. In the early stages, prostate cancer often causes no symptoms for many years. As a matter of fact, these cancers frequently are first detected by an abnormality on a blood test (the PSA, discussed below) or as a hard nodule (lump) in the prostate gland. Occasionally, the doctor may first feel a hard nodule during a routine digital (done with the finger) rectal examination. The prostate gland is located immediately in front of the rectum.

Rarely, in more advanced cases, the cancer may enlarge and press on the urethra. As a result, the flow of urine diminishes and urination becomes more difficult. Patients may also experience burning with urination or blood in the urine. As the tumor continues to grow, it can completely block the flow of urine, resulting in a painfully obstructed and enlarged urinary bladder. These symptoms by themselves, however, do not confirm the presence of prostate cancer. Most of these symptoms can occur in men with non-cancerous (benign) enlargement of the prostate (the most common form of prostate enlargement). However, the occurrence of these symptoms should prompt an evaluation by the doctor to rule out cancer and provide appropriate treatment.

Furthermore, in the later stages, prostate cancer can spread locally into the surrounding tissue or the nearby lymph nodes, called the pelvic nodes. The cancer then can spread even farther (metastasize) to other areas of the body. Symptoms of metastatic disease include fatigue, malaise, and weight loss. The doctor during a rectal examination can sometimes detect local spread into the surrounding tissues. That is, the physician can feel a hard, fixed (not moveable) tumor extending from and beyond the gland. Prostate cancer usually metastasizes first to the lower spine or the pelvic bones (the bones connecting the lower spine to the hips), thereby causing back or pelvic pain. The cancer can then spread to the liver and lungs. Metastases (areas to which the cancer has spread) to the liver can cause pain in the abdomen and jaundice (yellow color of the skin) in rare instances. Metastases to the lungs can cause chest pain and coughing.

Prostate cancer was first identified in 1853, and can only occur in men since prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. According to the survey of the American Cancer Society, this illness is most common in the United States, where it is the main cause of cancer related deaths, after lung cancer. This cancer is least common in South and East Asia. Prostate cancer is a disease that comes into existence due to mutation of the cells of the prostate which begin to multiply uncontrollably. The prostate glands require androgenes, male hormones, to function properly. If caught in its early stage, prostate cancer can be cured in 90% of the cases.

Symptoms of prostate cancer vary, and sometimes do not clearly indicate cancer. The person with discomfort and disease has to undergo a thorough examination to determine the underlying cause of these occurrences. Nevertheless, many men having developed this illness will never find out about it, will not undergo any treatment, and will die of other causes as this disease is forming in the later part of life. The disease is typical of men over 50 years of age, thus many are apt to die of other causes while the cancer slowly advances and spreads to other parts of their body. Due to this factor the selection of the right treatment is at times difficult.

If a man experiences an urge or need to urinate frequently, especially at night, or if he is facing difficulty starting or holding back urine, if his urine has a disturbed or weak flow accompanied with a painful, burning feeling when urinating, there is a high probability of him developing prostate cancer. It affects a man's sexual life as well.

In some cases a person with this disease will face problems of erection, and painful ejaculation. Cancer cells may spread, i.e., metastasize to other parts of the body, mainly to the lymph nodes, which help in destroying bacteria, and to the bones. Similarly with problems of the female reproductive system, men also feel pain, stiffness in the lower back, and upper thighs.

Diagnosis of the disease sometimes happens when an individual undergoes physical examination or screening blood tests. Particular of these tests is PSA, i.e., prostate specific antigen test. If a patient is suspected of having developed cancer, he will have biopsy, a test during which a piece of the prostate will be removed and examined under a microscope. Various other tests may be performed, like bone scans and X-rays to determine whether the cancer cells have spread elsewhere in the body.

Curing and treatment have various methods. One of these is chemotherapy, in which chemical substances are used for treating. Nowadays, catatonic drugs are used during chemotherapy. Besides, there are other ways of treatment which can be combined with each other, or with chemotherapy itself, these being surgery, hormone therapy, and radiation therapy.

After all, the outcome of the therapy depends on various factors, like for example the age and current health of the man, the extent of the spreading of the infected cells, and the appearance under the microscope, and the response of the cells while treatment all determine the result and outcome of prostate cancer disease.

The specific causes of prostate cancer are yet unknown. The risk of a man developing this disease depends on his age, genetics, race, lifestyle, which includes diet as well, and medication. According to surveys carried out in the United States, this cancer affects mainly black men, rather than white or Hispanic men. Surveys also show that daily use of anti-inflammatory medicines, such as aspirin, may decrease the risk of cancer.

Prevention of the disease has been proven to be possible by scientists. Taking dietary supplements, like vitamin E and selenium, may help prevent the disease from forming if taken daily. Still, A thousands of years old prevention has been proven helpful, namely the consumption of green tea. It is 100% safe and can be taken in any quantity.
It is crucial that every man has an early check-up of his health in identifying cancer at the beginning stage.
Action taken in time can save your life!

A. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood.

Frequent urination can be a symptom of many different problems. When frequent urination is accompanied by fever, an urgent need to urinate, and pain or discomfort in the abdomen, you may have a urinary tract infection. Other possible causes of frequent urination include:

Diabetes: Frequent urination is often an early symptom of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes as the body tries to rid itself of unused glucose through the urine.

Pregnancy: From the early weeks of pregnancy the growing uterus places pressure on the bladder, causing frequent urination.

Prostate problems: An enlarged prostate can press against the urethra (the tube that carries urine out the body) and block the flow of urine. This causes the bladder wall to become irritable. The bladder begins to contract even when it contains small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination.

Interstitial cystitis: This condition of unknown cause is characterized by pain in the bladder and pelvic region. Often, symptoms include an urgent and/or frequent need to urinate.

Diuretic use: These medications that are used to treat high blood pressure or fluid buildup work in the kidney and flush excess fluid from the body, causing frequent urination.
Stroke or other neurological diseases: Damage to nerves that supply the bladder can lead to problems with bladder function, including frequent and sudden urges to urinate.
Less common causes include bladder cancer, bladder dysfunction, and radiation therapy.

Often frequent urination is not a symptom of a problem, but is the problem. In people with overactive bladder syndrome, involuntary bladder contractions lead to frequent and often urgent urination, meaning you have to get to a bathroom right now-- even if your bladder is not full. It may also lead you to wake up once or more during the night to use the bathroom.

A. A. The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known, so at this time it is not possible to prevent most cases of the disease. Many risk factors such as age, race, and family history cannot be controlled. But based on what we do know, some cases might be prevented.

As if having to deal with your first kidney stone is not painful enough, you now have to worry about recurring kidney stones. Let’s face it, kidney stones can be among the most painful health related issues you will ever endure. However, there are preventative measures you can take to avoid getting your first one or stop others from forming.

Approximately 50% of individuals that suffer from a kidney stone will soon be suffering from recurring kidney stones. That is, unless the necessary changes are made and kept. So, what are the changes that needs to be made? This will vary depending on your other health related conditions.
Click here to discover how you can remove your kidney stone naturally.

For example, your weight, dietary needs, dietary habits, exercise, medications and the list can go on. However, your doctor will be able to determine the best methods for you to use when you are making the changes.

Here are some fairly general changes that you will need to consider in order to prevent the formation of kidney stones.
The most important thing for you to consider is dietary changes and modifications. You should reduce the oxalates you consume to a bare minimum at most, however eliminating them altogether is best. This can often be the only thing you will need to do to prevent recurring kidney stones.

Pay close attention to the beverages and foods you are willing to put into your body. Some of the things you should avoid are dairy products, chocolate, coffee, liver, alcohol, salt and grapefruit juice. Consult with your physician for a full list of foods for you to avoid, safely.

Some of the lifestyle changes that you should also consider as a preventative measure for kidney stones is regular exercise and proper hydration. Light to moderate exercise can be beneficial for assisting in the body resisting kidney stone formation. Not to go without mention, light to moderate exercise is beneficial for your overall health, including the mental health of an individual.

Preventing the formation of recurring kidney stones can be done. However, before making any changes to your life it is vital that you meet and discuss all of your options with your medical care provider. He or she should be able to guide you in the right direction for healthy changes that will benefit your overall health and assist in the prevention of recurring kidney stones.


Everyone forms crystals in their urine, even people who never form kidney stones. Urine, which is produced in the kidneys, naturally contains substances that promote the development of crystals. These stone promoters include calcium, oxalate, sodium, phosphorus and uric acid (and also cystine, in the case of individuals with the inherited disorder known as cystinuria).

These stone-promoting compounds, which come from the bloodstream, are present in urine because the kidneys filter our blood and regulate whether and how much of these urinary constituents will be reabsorbed by the kidneys (put back into blood circulation) or eliminated as waste.

In addition to these stone promoters, urine also naturally contains proteins and other compounds that inhibit crystal formation. Examples of stone inhibitors in urine include total urine volume (the more urine produced, the less concentrated it is and less likely to become supersaturated), citrate, magnesium, pyrophosphate, phytate and proteins and other molecules derived from normal metabolism, collectively referred to as urinary macromolecules. These inhibitors aid the elimination of crystals before they attach to the kidney and grow into larger stones.
In order for tiny crystals to grow into larger stones, the urine must first become supersaturated, either due to: 

  • Low urine volume
  • Abnormally high concentration of stone promoters
  • Abnormally low concentration of stone inhibitors
  • Any combination of the above

 Under normal circumstances, there is a balance of urinary stone promoters and inhibitors, leading to the painless elimination from the kidney of tiny crystals.

Thus, if the crystals remain small enough, and if the urine is dilute enough to avoid supersaturation, crystals will flow with urine through the ureters and bladder without being noticed or causing problems. However, this balance between stone promoters and inhibitors does not exist for everyone - either due to genetic, lifestyle or other factors - leading to the formation of kidney stones.


There are many reasons why blood may appear in your urine. A urinary tract infection is a common culprit, as are kidney stones. Other causes can include taking certain medications, diabetes, hypertension, and other diseases. Injury or strenuous exercise can even cause blood in the urine.
Blood in the urine can be a symptom of some types of cancer. Bladder cancer and kidney cancer can both cause blood to appear in the urine. Prostate cancer can as well, but it is not common. 

If you have seen blood in your urine, report it to your doctor, even if it has gone away. Many times, blood can be present in the urine, but we can't see it. This is called microscopic hematuria and means that the blood cannot be seen by the naked eye.

There are also instances where it looks like blood may be in the urine, but it really isn't blood. For women, an example would be menstrual bleeding that flows from the vagina during urination, giving the false appearance of blood in the urine. Red foods like beets and rhubarb can alter the color of urine, but only usually if you eat a lot of them. Medications can also cause the color of urine to change, giving an appearance of bloody urine.

If you are unsure whether you have blood in your urine, report it to your doctor. A urinalysis is all that is needed to determine if blood is present in the urine. Depending on any other symptoms you may have, your doctor may ask to collect the urine by catheter. Urinating in a cup is a much more common means of providing a urine sample, however.


Getting pregnant happens in different time frames for each couple. Some may conceive within weeks of going off birth control, while for others it may take years of expensive treatments. The real question really is why you, as a couple, are having trouble conceiving.
Who's "at fault"?

Many men may feel it is their "fault" if their wife or partner doesn't get pregnant quickly. Infertility problems, however, occur in both men and women, and no one is to blame. Mayo Clinic doctors say many things must go exactly right for pregnancy to occur, and, in 30 to 40 percent of infertility cases, the causes involve both the man and the woman.

Reasons for infertility

Doctors say fertility problems often are hard to specify. Reproductive endocrinologist Staci Pollack, MD, of the Montefiore Medical Center's Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Health, called such problems "subclinical - meaning we know something is wrong, it's just not showing up on the radar."


If you have been trying to conceive for a year, see a doctor, recommends the Mayo Clinic. You should see one earlier, if, for instance, you are a woman with a history of painful or irregular menstrual cycles or a man with a history of testicular or prostate problems.


Male infertility has numerous causes, according to the Mayo Clinic, including low sperm count, "impaired shape and movement of sperm," a varicose vein in the scrotum, testosterone deficiency or infection. In women, causes include blocked or damaged fallopian tubes, ovulation disorders, benign tumors in the uterus or early menopause.

Other reasons

Other reasons for infertility include environmental factors, stress, age, alcohol dependency and obesity.


To boost fertility, say WebMD doctors, couples can try eating healthily, getting to or staying at a healthy weight, reducing stress, and tracking ovulation. If you have been trying for a year and nothing is working, it may be time to consider other measures, such as insemination or in vitro fertilization.